Agra ias pedia upsc world
  • Agra is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is located on the banks of the Yamuna river.
  • It is home to the iconic Taj Mahal.

Earliest Reference to the city

  1. The earliest reference to Agra appears in the epic Mahabharata, where it is referred to as “Agravana”.
    • The city is a part of Brijbhoomi the land associated with the birth and legendary activities of lord Krishna”.
  2. Claudius Ptolemy is believed to be the first person to refer to the city of “Agra” in his account “Geographia”.
    • Ptolemy might have thought that Agra was named after a Hindu king Agramesh or Agrameshwar,
  3. The city has been referred to as Arya Griha or the home of the Aryans.
  4. According to some historians, Agra derived its name from the Hindi word ‘agar’, which means ‘salt pan’.
  5. An alternative view holds that Agra was founded by Maharaja Agrasen or Ugrasen, the great grandfather of Lord Krishna.

Establishment of the city

  1. Sultan Sikandar Lodi, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504.
    • It served as the capital of the Delhi Sultanate in the early 16th century.
  2. The golden age of the city began with the Mughals when it was known as “Akbarabad”.
    • Agra also served as the Mughal capital during some periods of that empire.​
  3. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of the Marathas and began to be called Agra.
  4. Agra has historic linkages with Shauripur of Jainism and Runukta of Hinduism of 1000 BC.

Latest News:

November 2019

  1. The government of Uttar Pradesh may be planning to change the name of Agra to Agravan.
    • The Department of History at the Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar University in Agra has been asked to examine whether the city was known by any other name in ancient times.


  1. The Hindu
  2. AIR-All India Radio
  3. PIB
  4. Indian Express
  5. Wikipedia
  6. Vajiram & Ravi

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