• Drought is generally defined as “a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time (usually a season or more), resulting in a water shortage.” 
  • It is a prolonged dry period in the natural climate cycle that can occur anywhere in the world.
  • It is a slow-onset disaster characterized by the lack of precipitation, resulting in a water shortage.
  •  A drought can last for months or years or may be declared after as few as 15 days.

Types of Droughts

  • Meteorological drought is defined usually on the basis of the degree of dryness (in comparison to some “normal” or average amount) and the duration of the dry period.
  • Agricultural drought should be able to account for the variable susceptibility of crops during different stages of crop development, from emergence to maturity.
  • Hydrological drought is associated with the effects of periods of precipitation (including snowfall) and shortfalls on surface or subsurface water supply (i.e. streamflow, reservoir and lake levels, and groundwater).
  • Socioeconomic drought is associated with the supply and demand of some economic goods with elements of meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural drought.


  1. Wikipedia
  2. Drought.gov

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