Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
- The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is an indigenously-developed expendable launch system of the ISRO.
- It comes in the category of medium-lift launchers with a reach up to various orbits, including the Geo Synchronous Transfer Orbit, Lower Earth Orbit, and Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit.
- PSLV has a four-stage system comprising a combination of solid and liquid-fuelled rocket stages.
- The first stage at the very bottom is solid fuelled having six strap-on solid rocket boosters wrapped around it.
- The second stage is liquid-fuelled whereas the third stage has a solid-fuelled rocket motor.
- In the fourth stage, the launcher uses a liquid propellant to boost outer space.
- It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
- Its first successful launch took place in October 1994.
Payloads of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
- It is capable of placing multiple payloads into orbit. Thus, multi-payload adaptors are used in the payload fairing.
- During the 1994-2017 period, the vehicle launched 48 Indian satellites and 209 satellites for customers from abroad.
- Some notable payloads launched by PSLV include
- India’s first lunar probe Chandrayaan-1,
- India’s first interplanetary mission – Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) and
- India’s first space observatory – Astrosat.
- It can take up to 1,750 kg of payload to Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits at 600 km altitude.
- 20 April 2023:
- The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch Singapore’s TeLEOS-2 satellite, an earth observation satellite.
- The launch will be carried out by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).