United Nations

  • The United Nations is the world’s largest international organization founded in 1945 after World War II.
  • Its charter was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945, and came into existence on October 24, 1945, after 51 countries has signed the charter.
  • Its predecessor, the League of Nations, created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 was disbanded in 1946.
  • Its mission is
    • To maintain international peace and security,
    • To develop friendly relations among nations and
    • To promote social progress, better living standards and human rights.
  • Un Headquarters is located in New York.
  • Official Languages of the UN are Arabic, English, French, Chinese, Spanish, and Russian. 
  • The total number of member countries of the UN is 193.
    • The latest Member is South Sudan.
  • António Guterres, from Portugal (2017-present), is the current Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Principal organs of the United Nations

  • The UN has six principal organs:
    • The General Assembly
      • It is the main deliberative assembly of the UN.
    • The Security Council
      • It decides certain resolutions for peace and security.
    • The Economic and Social Council
      • It assists in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development.
    • The Secretariat
      • It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN.
    • The International Court of Justice
      • It is the primary judicial organ.
    • The United Nations Trusteeship Council
      • It suspended its operations on 1 November 1994, a month after the independence of Palau.

Other Specialized organs of the UN

  • The UN also includes various Funds, Programmes and specialized agencies:
    • Food and Agriculture Organization
    • International Labour Organization
    • International Civil Aviation Organization
    • International Maritime Organization
    • Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
    • United Nations Capital Development Fund
    • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
    • United Nations Development Programme
    • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
    • United Nations Environment Programme
    • United Nations Human Settlements Programme
    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization
    • United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)
    • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
    • Universal Postal Union
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • World Intellectual Property Organization
    • World Food Programme
    • World Meteorological Organization
    • World Tourism Organization.

UN Budget

  • United Nations is funded by its member states through compulsory and voluntary contributions.
  • The size of each state’s compulsory contribution depends mainly on its economic strength, though its state of development and debt situation are also taken into account.
  • Member countries can make voluntary contributions to UNESCO, WHO, UN Programmes and Funds such as the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

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